Scope management begins with the project definition and continues through the entire project. With products such as software and the first round of a multi-year training program, project managers can divert requests for additional features or functionality by saying “I’ll include that in our recommendations for the next project.” The “wait until the next version” message is harder to sell when your major project . deliverable is a new building or cruise snip.
Whether your project deliverable are soft goods, services or goods, the project manager needs to create and dearly communicate it process for collecting, evaluating, and accepting recommended addictions or modification~ to the project plan: We widely circulate change form (see), and make sure that team members route all suggested changes through the project manager, preferably by email with a copy to the group or individual suggesting the Change. Change requests are evaluated by the project manager or assigned team members to determine whether the change falls within the current scope, AS defined in the project definition.
If they are not the project.manager determines the following:
• The cost to impalement the request
• The amount ?f delay, if any, if the r~quest is implemented
• Other areas-of the project impacted by implementing the request.
Requests that increase the budget, extend the timeline, or predefined delay one or more deliverable must be approved in writing, by the individual or group author the project, before the project-tile is modified to reflect the change, After the’ project file is modified, we use Team Update (see Figure 4.21) to inform work group members of the change.
As with Team Assign, team members can provide immediate feedback on the proposed schedule changes. The authorized change request is included in the next period report to stakeholders and managers.
Managing the Project Schedule and CO$ts
With frequent updates from work group members of actual work performed and their estimates of work-remaining, you have the information you need to manage the project schedule and costs. The mantra for this management task is “catch it early.” Request status reports urgently at the beginning of the implementation phase. Relatively small amounts of unnoticed slippage early in the project can create large delays late. After you receive responses to Team Status requests and update your project file, check the Project Statistics to see whether the project is still on schedule and within budget. Choose Project-> Project Information. Change the Status Date to the date you want to view project statistics for, and then click the Statistics button to view the current statistics, as shown in Figure 4.22
The statistics in Figure ·l.22.show that the project started a day late and is projected to finish eight days behind schedule. Review the. critical tasks (see “Optimizlng the Plan,” earlier in this chapter’) to see why the project is scheduled ta flnish late.
Get approval for the delay, or follow the optimization, strategies discussed earlier in the to get the project back on track.
Our critical path analysis (see Figure 4.23) traces the delay to one task: Identify Current Materials.
The task Should have been completed a week ago, and hasn’t been started yet. We discussed this with Belinda, and found that the training director hasn’t responded to her request for the cuiriculum map, (At this point, we’re all agreed that “Obtain CurrIculum Map” should have been a separate task!) ‘Abby agreed to help Belinda review the materials without the map (assigning additional resources). They will have the task completed today; Weill assign additional resources to the Prepare List of Modifications and Edit Materials tasks to make up the rest of the delay.
Another tool used in schedule management highlights tasks that are incomplete or behind schedule: In the Tracking Gantt (View Tracking Gantt), bars representing the baseline Gantt Chart are shown in gray, and the percentage of each task completed is displayed at the end of the task bar, as shown in Figure 4.24. The Gantt Chart filtered for critical tasks helps identify problems that affect the project tirnellne, but the Tracking Gantt shows you all the problem tasks, even if their delay doesn’t affect the deadline.
Managing ProjeCt Resources
.Adding resources can result In overallocatlon. Schedule changes can also lead to c very allocation, .as tasks from one week slip into a week when the resource is already committed to other tasks. Use the Resource Sheet to locate over allocated resources, and use the optimization strategies listen dealer In this chapter to resolve over allocation. After changing the task assignments, we Switched to the Resource Sheet to check for over allocations. Abby·~d Dwight are now over Resource Graph (View> Resource Graph), shown in Figure 4.26, and found that the over allocation is due to the additional tasks we assigned. Dwight’s .over allocation is due to slippage on the pretest .
You’ll repeat the project management tasks until the project Is completed. Each day, week, or month, the project manager requests status reports; updates the project; checks ‘ the finish date and budget; and manages the schedule, costs, and project resources, At some point, however, the project will be finished. The last task of the .project manager is closing the project.
CIosing the Project
At the conclusion of the project, the project manager schedules a. meet called a post-implementation review, project review, or postmortem. The purpose of the session to gather and summarize project information for a number of potential users: stakeholders,
organizational managers, the project team, and other project manager so Solid, well-documented information about the project provides a basis for success for future projects, and is included in the final project report. In many organizations, a lessons-learned brainstorming session is used to elicit ideas that can be useful in other projects. Lessons ‘can be positive experiences or techniques
that should be repeated, as well as procedures that need to be buried in the deepest hole the organization can locate. In addition to a summary of the postmortem, the final project report should minimally include the following reports and views:
• Reports: Project Summary Milestones, Budget, Over budget Tasks, Over budget Resources – 10-
• Views: Tracking Gantt, Gantt Chart with Valiance Table Your final report will include other information dictated by the type of project.
The XYZ-Branch Office Training Protect final report, for example, will include pretest and post-test results, trainee and trainer evaluations of each course, and recommendations for future training. The electronic version of each final report includes a copy of the Project 2000 project file.
In this chapter, we built, managed, and dosed a project in record time. But Project 2000, , like project management itself, is in the details. In the next six chapters, we’ll build a project piece by piece, taking time for the seemingly trivial distinctions that directly affect project success.
“Working in Project 2000,” focuses on working diffidently in Project 2000. In 6, you’ll learn about the intricacies of project calendars. 7 and 8 cover creating, constraining, outlining, and linking tasks. In 9 and 10, we explain resources, resource assignment, costs, and the task triangle: work, units, and duration. In 11, we optimize and publish the project plan.