A project Schultz includes the sequence of activities, the relationships between the activities, and the timing of each activity. There are two major tools used to schedule protects: Gantt thwarts and networks, including PERT and CPM. Henry Gantt invented
the chart that bears his name to present the sequence and time required for a project’s activities. A simple Gantt Chart that illustrates some of the BOT project activities is shown in Figure 2.6.
What the traditional Gantt Chart can’t show is the relationship between activities, Some activities aren’t related at all. The pretest (refer to Figure 2.6) can be developed at the same time that travel arrangements are being made. (Unrelated activities are also called parallel activities.)
Other activities can’t begin until another activity.is partially or wholly completed. Activities that must occur before the current activity are its predecessors and an actiV\ty and its predecessors are related In serler. The relenonstup between activities directly influences the project timeline. Materials must be published before they can be duplicated, and they must be duplicated before they can be shipped. Thus, publishing and duplicating are predecessors of shipping. If the materials aren’t published at the time specified in the project schedule, duplicating and shipping might be delayed. Project 2000 uses a modified Gantt Chart that Includes links to show activity relationships. The Gantt Chart shown in Figure 2.6 is shown with links in Figure 2.7.
link lines clearly indicate series and parallel relationships between the activities. Although Project’s linking feature handles the shortcomings of the traditional Gantt Chart, two other methods were created to schedule projects long before the creation of Microsoft Project (or microcomputers).
Simple projects can be easily scheduled and managed with Gantt Charts.
In we’ll show you how to use Gantt Charts .to schedule a project. For more complex projects or projects with a great number of unknowns, we recommend PERT, PERT is more than a diagram; it’s a method to manage project uncertainty, and is a useful tool whenever you do anything innovative or risky. For more details on using P~RT in a variety of environments, see Appendix A, “Setting Quality Standards.”